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In the Fate universe, is there a reason why the Servants summoned in each Holy Grail War belong to different classes?

Using relics and additional incantations during the summoning ritual, Masters have some degree of control over the Class (e.g. Matou Kariya's additional incantations to choose the Berserker Class) and exact identity of the Servant.

What would happen if two Masters both tried the same Class using an incantation (e.g., Berserker), or even used (part of) the same relic to summon the same Servant? For example:

What would happen if Waver Velvet had only stolen part of Rider's (Iskandar) cloak, unbeknownst to Kayneth Archibald, and both Masters tried to summon Rider?

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up vote 6 down vote accepted

I think you answered this yourself:

Using relics and additional incantations during the summoning ritual, Masters have some degree of control over the Class

The keyword here is "some". The Servants are summoned by the Grail, even though the Masters have some sort of control of what they are trying to summon. This wiki states (it has a reference too, but the reference is in Japanese):

The Three Knight classes are the only Servants who will definitely be summoned according to the framework of the Holy Grail War, allowing for variation in the rest of the classes. More than one version of the same class cannot be summoned, even if all the Masters were to use the variation in the summoning chant to get a Berserker-class Servant.

So apparently in this case, the Grail will summon a Servant based on it's compatibility with the concrete Master, much as it has happened with

Caster's master Ryuunosuke Uryuu

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Plus think of the mess of things multiple Berserkers will make... not to mention surreal competitions to determine who the real Berserker is. – ʞɹɐzǝɹ Dec 19 '12 at 21:53
I think what would be more interesting is a battle between seven Assassins. – Arturia Pendragon Dec 20 '12 at 8:24

Whoever summoned a Class first will get it for certain. If 2 Masters tried to get Saber, whoever summoned it first would get it and the other would get the hero their Catalyst would summon in another role. To give an in-universe example: Gilles de Rail (Caster) was summoned as his weakest possible class in his weakest state: After the death of Jeanne D´arc where he was a deranged serial killer who delved into magic. Had Ryounosuke summoned Gilles earlier, he would´ve most likely gotten him as a Saber or Rider, the 2 classes he belong to the best.

There´s never really given a reason as to why classes exist. The best answer i can give you is variety in combatants. If all 7 Masters summoned a Hassan Sabbah (Assassin), the show would honestly suck.

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