When the captains and vice captains gave their powers in Urahara's sword to restore Ichigo's powers, did they permanently lose part of their powers?
Nope. I believe it's the same case as Rukia. Even though she borrowed her powers to Ichigo at the start of the series and couldn't recover her powers while in the Human World, this was mostly because of Urahara's Special Gigai. By the time she returned to Soul Society, she eventually got all of her powers back.