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Ciel Phantomhive's noble title was Earl. In medieval England, an Earl was the same as a Count in other parts of Europe. Phantomhive is his family name; therefore, him being called Earl Phantomhive was understandable. It was like calling Earl Peter Raeves of Wessex "Earl Raeves", or Earl Ian Hunter of Hwicce "Earl Hunter".

My question is, since Phantomhive is his family name and not the name of a region in England (unless in the Kuroshitsuji universe there is a region named Phantomhive, but I've never heard of that), what region/county in England was Ciel the Earl of?

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Earls, Dukes, and Counts can all vaguely be considered the same thing. All of them could either be rulers over a section of the Queen's territory ("Earl Peter Raeves of Wessex") or it was just a title for a part of the hierarchy that was close to the monarch. I think he's called the Earl of Phantomhive, or I suppose you could say Earl Phantomhive, because that puts him in his spot in the hierarchy and as the head of the Phantomhive family. Please correct me if I'm wrong but that's how I always understood it.

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With what I've read in the manga. Earl of Phantomhive has always been a direct servant to the queen. The way the manga seems to portray it. The phantomhive family is in charge of the entire underground network for all of England.

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    He surely have a county where his title governs over, otherwise his title would be a titular title, which would make others suspicious of him since a titular count (or Earl in his case) is unheard of. Usually a titular title would be at least of King level, like for example the title of King of Jerusalem (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_of_Jerusalem). Others being suspicious of him would make it hard for him to inspect them, thus for the sake of his cover and so that he can do his secret job as the Queen's watchdog, the Queen surely won't give him a titular title but a real title. – 絢瀬絵里 Jun 12 '16 at 8:22
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    @AyaseEri Having just re-watched it, I have to agree with this answer. Everyone seems to know Phantomhive as rulers over the underground. It doesn't necessarily have to be land that he governs under, especially if it's appointed by the crown. As long as the people accepts that there can be other things to govern, the title would make sense. – Thebluefish Oct 21 '16 at 14:29

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