These are all very different effects and I don't think that most were done with airbrushing. The first one, maybe, but it's hard to be sure without seeing a higher resolution of that image. The second one is often "animated" and appears to be a real lens flare, that could be achieved by using a certain type of lens and shining in a light source from a side angle. With the others it's hard to say, again, because of image resolution issues. I've seen the water effect you're referencing a lot, too, but I'm under the impression that it's something else entirely. As for the last effect, that's the one I'm most interested in because I see it used all the time in 80s anime and I love the effect. I'm like 90% sure it's not done with airbrushing, however. If I had to guess, they leave part of the background cel unpainted and then shoot it over a light table with the light shining through to achieve this effect.