In the second episode of Evangelion, we can see that Shinji's Eva's right eye is injured by the Third Angel, but nothing happens to his right eye. But when it comes to Asuka's Eva getting her right eye injured by a Lance of Longinus in End of Evangelion, it also injures her right eye. How can this happen?
The Lance of Longinus is not a normal weapon like it mobilized Lilith and it just overpowers Lilith and Adam which are the seeds of life of Angels and humans so I suppose it can harm the pilot if it hits the Eva It has that power and what makes this theory true and the synchronization one wrong is that if it wasnt asuka would be so dead, the harm caused by the other new evas to unit02 is so massive like her guts were out of her
If you've watched any other movies out anime series that have some sort of synchronisation between the human and a bigger robot (e.g. Pacific Rim and Darling In The Franxx) the concept that since the human is one with the thing they're connected to they will lose sense of their own feeling and only feel what the thing they're connected to is feeling externally, and since in Evangelion the Longinus Spear is something to stop Angels in their paths instantly and since Evas are Angel carcass basically, the Longinus Spear will have the same effect on the Eva, and since Asuka was linked to her Eva the Spear had dealt damage that an Angel would normally take to her Eva dealing the same damage to Asuka too.