We know of a few times Vegeta was stronger than Goku.
Before arriving to Earth, prior Goku learnt kaioken (This shouldn't count as surpassing, since he started being stronger)
The first time he went out of the time chamber.
The time Beerus slapped Bulma.
But there were other times, I'm sure, and there are some dubious ones, like the first time he became super saiyan, if I recall correctly, it was Piccolo who stated Vegeta might have surpassed Goku.
Therefore my question is,
How many times Vegeta has surpassed Goku in power?