It's rather confusing how the story is serialized not in the order of its events. I'd like to know the order in which the animated versions were produced.
Turns out the creators of the series are very considerate towards the viewers and include several recap episodes in each season. So although the story is out of order, everything still makes perfect sense and you don't have to bother yourself by figuring out the exact timeline of the original.
The first 12 episodes of Bakemonogatari aired on TV weekly from July 3 - September 25, 2009. Episodes 13-15 of Bakemonogatari were webcasted from November 3 - June 25, 2010.
Nisemonogatari (11 episodes) aired on TV weekly from January 7 - March 17, 2012.
Nekomonogatari [Black] (4 episodes) aired on TV as a special on December 31, 2012.
Monogatari Second Season (consisting of Neko [White], Kabuki, Otori, Oni, and Koi; 26 episodes including 3 recaps) aired on TV weekly from July 6, 2013 - December 28, 2013.
Hanamonogatari (also called "Monogatari Second Season + α" ["plus alpha"]; 5 episodes) aired as a special on August 16, 2014.
Tsukimonogatari (4 episodes) aired as a special on December 31, 2014.
See this question for information on the in-universe chronological order of the series.
Note also that the publication order of the light novels is not the same as the production order of the animated series. There are two key differences.
Kizumonogatari, which was published between Bake and Nise, has not yet been animated. It was announced in July 2010 that Kizumonogatari would receive a film adaptation. As of this writing (over four years later), no such adaptation has been produced, nor is there even any reason to believe that anybody actually planned to produce a film version of Kizu. Many speculate that Kizumonogatari is an elaborate practical joke by Shaft.
Hanamonogatari, which was published between Kabuki and Otori, was not animated until after Otori, Oni, and Koi.