What are these kind of beam weapons used by Ghoul Investigators like Kishou Arima, or Mougan Tanakamaru? Are they based on Ghouls like Quinques or are they something completely different?
By the looks of the first image, it must be Narukami:
Narukami (ナルカミ, Narukami) is an ukaku-type quinque. It discharges condensed Rc cells just like lightning bolts. Possessing a tracking function, evasion of the bolts is next to impossible.
And for the second image, it is the Higher Mind:
Higher Mind (ハイアーマインド（高次精神次元）, Haiā Maindo) or Angel Beat (天使の羽ばたき（エンジェルビート）, Enjeru Bīto) is an ukaku-type quinque that shoots beams of concentrated energy or condensed Rc cells.