Since Chapter 646 is currently the latest chapter, the question will be in spoilers.
My question specifically pertains to whether or not all shinobi descended from the Sage of Six Paths. Is this what Madara is implying in the last panel of this picture: "[...] in effect, taught us all chakra..."?
I think there are multiple ways to interpret this. One is that all shinobi are related to Kaguya, meaning everyone related knows how to use chakra.
And the second way is that if one knows how to use chakra, then all their offspring will be born into the world able to use chakra. Therefore the Sage of Six Paths can simply teach others how to use chakra and then everyone else knows.
There were probably some words lost in translation, so I am just confused now.
Did all shinobi descend from the Sage of Six Paths or did the Sage simply just teach others how to use chakra?