If someone was able to acquire one of the last 36-pairs of the Scarlet Eyes that was taken from the Kurta Clan and then surgically replace their own eyes with them, would they be able to have the same specialisation power under the same conditions that Kurapika must meet?
Your question essentially has a few parts:
- Is the Specialist Nen ability tied to the eyes of the Kurta Clan or is it unique to Kurapika?
I don't think this is answered sufficiently. Kurapika's Nen ability triggers when his eyes turn red but it is not clear if the Nen ability would be present for other Kurta clan members. I don't believe it would. Nevertheless, there are other enhanced abilities ascribed to this state since childhood that are tied to Kurta race. While his eyes were scarlet, Kurapika could fight several grown men even as a young child.
- Are normal Kurta scarlet eye abilities transferable via transplant?
I don't think so but this answer is not fully clear. The scarlet eyes seem to be a visible "symptom" of a more complicated physical process. Essentially, the Kurtas experience a dramatic increase in blood flow (among other things). The increased blood flow through the eyes (whether realistic or not) causes the irises to turn red. As the process is not caused by the eyes, there is no reason to think transferring the eyes would cause this process. While I think a person who can get increased blood flow to the eyes might have those eyes turn red in the same way, that would not cause any other abilities.
- Would eye/body part transplant transfer Nen abilities?
Nen can be stored in inanimate objects (as severed body parts would be) so the eyes would certainly contain Nen. However, Nen is "owned" by its user even after their death. I don't see that you would get the ownership of that Nen (much less the ability) just because you have their flesh. The closest counterpoint to this is the Chimera Ants. While consuming Nen users results in Ants with the potential for Nen abilities, I don't think they get the specific ability of their source. It is personal to them. If I am mistaken please let me know, but all ant Nen abilities I can remember are unique to them. As they have memories of their past selves, I can imagine they may intentionally work to get the same ability but that is not the same thing.
So in my eyes, all parts of this question point to "probably not but not definitively no". Unless i was going blind I would not risk it but a rich blind man could do this. This would be an awesome character specific arc for Kurapika. Whether any of this is possible is all up to the mangaka.
I'm not a neurosurgeon but I think The brain would have to learn to adapt to the new bits of information required to use this ability. It would probably cause you major discomfort as you train your brain to interpret the information that it had never seen before. In addition. You would have to share blood types or your body would reject the new eyes causing potential death.
With this all in mind. No unless you were born with that predisposition to accept the information from that eye you would likely never full grasp the full potential and end up going crazy from the headaches/misinformation they eyes presented to you.