Throughout the manga, there have been instances where Titan shifters were able to survive fatal wounds.
Reiner, for example, in Chapter 78, survived even though half his head was blown off by transferring his consciousness to the nervous system of his titan's body.
Zeke, in Chapter 113, survived a direct explosion from a thunder spear, albeit he was severely wounded.
With, this there is a chance that
Eren may still survive.
I think it's safe to say that it's highly unlikely he used something similar to Reiner. Why?
As far as I know, it was never shown that he has a similar ability to Reiner who can transfer his consciousness to his titan. Also, at that time,
he was focused on running towards Zeke so I doubt he had time to transfer his consciousness somewhere (to his nervous system, for example), if that's even possible.
There is still regeneration to count on, even if there was no precedent or no known account in the manga where a titan shifter survived after his whole head was separated or blown off from his body, apart from what happened to Reiner. We also know that in Chapter 103, regeneration kicks in as long as the user has the will to live.
With this, I think that titan shifters can survive even fatal wounds like decapitation due to their innate ability of regeneration, so long as they have the will to live. Although the possibility of this being fatal to them cannot be ignored too since there's no precedent presented in the manga yet.