If a resistor produces/dissipates heat when a voltage drop is applied, how does Misaka survive when she uses her most powerful electrical attacks?
See this Q&A ("How much heat damage can Misaka's shocks do to a regular human at max output?") for calculations of the rate of temperature change that would occur in a human body of similar build to Misaka experiencing heat dissipation due to a maximum shock by her.
How is she not burnt to a crisp?
Note: I'm aware that for comedic effect, Misaka often electrically shocks Kuroko (in anime season 1, ep2 21:21, ep12 22:19, in season 2, ep4 3:25, ep17 16:21 and 18:43, ep19 7:21, ep22 13:46, ep23 10:54, in season 3, ep1 5:34 21:47, etc.), and Kuroko comes out of the experience fine. I shrug that off because I enjoy it for the comedic effect. But there's no comedic effect for most of Misaka's other attacks; those moments are quite serious in atmosphere, and the author of the Toaru series shows some dedication to logical/rational explanations for scifi phenomenon in their works, so I have some expectation/anticipation of more rigour to be applied outside of comedic contexts.
My theories of possible explanations for Misaka's survival
|My Faith in the Explanation
|She has a different specific heat capacity than a normal human body, which would mean a slower rate of temperature change.
|I'm doubtful of this, since she seems to experience heat similarly to her peers in the anime's season 1 beach episode (season 1 ep 13 at 12:00. She does seem relatively okay in the cold (possibly due to just trying to deflect Kuroko's advances), but reacts normally to the heat).
|She has greater ability to resist heat damage than a normal human, though she still experiences the sensation similar to a normal human
|This would explain the beach episode, but it does seem like a strange explanation to give for an electromaster. I apologize because I have little faith (having not read the manga or light-novels myself) that a confirmation or disproval of this will be found in those: I can't see such a technical detail being given casually in the story without some "perfect context".
|She has a different electrical resistance than a normal human body, which would also mean a slower rate of temperature change. Or, she can control the electrical resistance of her own body.
|This seems like a logical and satisfying explanation to me in that electrical resistance (at least by intuition to someone with a very shallow science background) is a highly-electricity-related property (compared to specific heat and resistance to heat damage). I wouldn't even be surprised if she could canonically control the resistance of her own body- sure, it couldn't happen in real life, but the same goes for most of her abilities and it seems believably consistent with the rest.
However, it would require higher resistence to reduce the heat dissipation by reducing the electrical power if I understand the physics correctly, so I don't understand how she could retain the power of the attack while using such a technique to protect herself against heat dissipation.
|Her electric shock attacks don't involve any special electrical activity inside her own body. It's shown clearly that external electric attacks against her don't work in the anime's first season in ep3 at 17:43.
|This wouldn't explain how she survives usage of her railgun, where the two rails which current flows between are supposedly simulated inside her own arm.
How is she still alive?
I've watched the three seasons of the anime, but haven't read the light novels or manga adaptation. Are any of the above explanations for her survival confirmed or denied in the light novels or manga adaptations? Or is there an explanation given that I haven't considered? If so, what is it?