So if seen this happen in a few anime's before, but never really understood why it happens.
A character with a wooden spoon like object and a bucket of water throws water on the ground during summer. Why are they doing this?
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This is called Uchimizu.
People do this to cool the street and as an effect - cools the surrounding area and reduces the amount of dust that flies around.
In recent times there has been a push for people to use recycled water instead to reduce waste.
The ladle and bucket are traditional, and can be replaced by hoses, buckets or any handy implement. Ladles and buckets are used exclusively at Uchimizu festivals though.
Uchimizu.jp provides a handy how-to guide for the activity: