It's the seed on shiny Ivysaur and Venusaur that is golden. While still a Bulbasaur, the bulb as yet to bloom and the seed is covered by the green leaves.
In one episode of the anime, it shows a Bulbasaur evolve into an Ivysaur. Albeit it's not shiny, you can clearly see the evolution process causes the bulb to bloom which reveals the seed on its back.
In the new-ish Sun & Moon series Ash enrolls in Pokémon School, to my knowledge this is the only time he formally enrols into any school or long-term training program.
Other appearances of formal education in the anime include:
The Pokémon Trainers' School where Ash gives a guest lecture
Pokémon Ninja School where he goes to learn Jujutsu (which doesn'...
Yes, Ash is now considered a Pokemon champion of Alola like Steven.
However, Ash already was a 'champion' before becoming the champion of Alola, the champion of Orange Islands.
However his victory on Orange Islands is often disregarded due to the unconventional 5 gym battles without Elite Four, a Champion, or a Conference.
As mentioned on the Pokemon fan ...
Meowth can't evolve because he can't battle.
As stated on Meowth's Bulbapedia article:
Meowth normally does not battle unless there are extreme circumstances; his explanation is that his ability to talk and walk upright came at the expense of battling ability.
A good example of this is Pokémon: The First Movie, where Meowth and his clone are two of the ...
In different view to F1Krazy's answer, I would like to point out that evolution has shown to work differently in the anime it does in the games.
There is no apparent leveling system in the anime, so it doesn't make sense for Meowth to have "acquired enough experience" for him to evolve.
Trade-revolutions are also shown being handled different, as with ...
for the first question
In the first season ep75 "Bad To The Bone!" a guy named Soto has lost all of his badges to Team Rocket saying "All our struggles and sacrifices were for nothing", meaning he can't just go and claim his badges were stolen, but in the 5th season ep45 "Why Wynaut!" after Ash's badges were stolen Clair the gym leader tells him "If you ...
https://youtu.be/cYPCHyP-9hw Watch the first 30 seconds of this video. It confirms that there are 2 different mewtwos, and they have met. It’s Cannon, as it was a special on Cartoon Network a few years ago