If you use "uke" and "seme" to describe particpants in yuri relationships, I imagine you'll be understood, but it'd be very weird - male homosexual relationships and female homosexual relationships are conceptualized quite differently from one another in Japan, and uke/seme is only an element of the former. I don't think Memor-X's answer quite gets at this.
Here is a basic (and oversimplified) sketch of how homosexuality is conceptualized: in a relationship between two men, one of them needs to "be the woman". Hence, we have this deep dichotomy between "uke" ("the woman") and "seme" ("the man"). On the other hand, in a relationship between two women, there is no need for one of them to "be the man" - and so the uke/seme distinction does not arise as obviously. Indeed, there's this notion called リバ (~"riba", from "reversible") to describe a lesbian who is fluid with respect to her role in a sexual situation; I'm not aware of an equivalent term for men.
Why is there this asymmetry? The reasons are probably myriad; one obvious one derives from how penetrative sex works - one party must "attack" ("seme") and the other party must "receive" ("uke") - and penetrative sex is obviously more commonly an element of male homosexual relationships than female ones. In this respect, Euro-American and Japanese notions of male homosexuality are not entirely dissimilar.
But anyway, whatever the reason, the fact of the matter is that uke/seme terminology is by far more entrenched in the male homosexual community than the female homosexual community. And this distinction percolates from actual homosexual communities to the communities of people who consume media about homosexuality (yaoi/yuri). The Japanese-proficient reader may like to note the following:
- The Japanese Wikipedia article on yuri does not reference the notion of "uke" or "seme".
- dic.pixiv's article on yuri has explicit commentary about the ordering of names in a pairing (consider "MadoHomu" vs. "HomuMado") having nothing to do with uke/seme. (dic.pixiv is obviously not a "reliable source" in the WP:IRS sense, but I'd say it is reflective of the views and concerns of the community of people who consume yuri media.)
- The glossary on the website of the "Lesbian Girls Club" in Osaka (with the wonderful domain name "lesbian.jp") only uses "uke" and "seme" as part of comparisons to related notions specific to lesbianism, like "tachi" and "neko" (as noted in makihige's answer).
- But, things like dic.pixiv and other websites for fans of yuri media generally do not use the terms "tachi" and "neko". For reasons that are unclear to me, these terms, unlike "uke" and "seme", do not seem to have percolated from the lesbian community to fans of yuri media.
The basic takeaways are these:
- Using "uke" and "seme" for female-female relationships is weird and not generally done.
- That particular dichotomy is not really even a thing in the Japanese conception of lesbianism, though other dichotomies, like "tachi"/"neko", are things.
- Consequently, in yuri media, "uke" and "seme" are, again, not really used.
- However, "tachi" and "neko" are not really used by fans of yuri media either.
And so, the answer to OP's title question is basically this: not only is there not a one-to-one equivalent to "uke"/"seme"; there isn't even really any terminology at all that's used to dichotomize relationships in yuri media. Them's the breaks.