Absolutely there is, when speaking generally, though this is not utilized in every single anime. The easiest way to familiarize yourself with the standard hair/personality types is to look at unapologetically harem (bishoujo) and reverse-harem (bishounen) anime and video games, because they heighten the main stereotypes with the aim of every viewer/player finding at least one type that is their ideal girl/guy. However, older anime from the 80s and earlier have a fairly different (though not completely different) set of standard types than more modern anime do.
For bishoujo, check out: ToHeart, Ai Yori Aoshi, Love Hina, Tokimeki Memorial, Kakyuusei, Debut, etc. For bishounen, check out: Fruits Basket, Fushigi Yuugi, Haruka naru Toki no Naka de, Hakuouki ~Shinsengumi Kitan ~, Ouran Koukou Hosuto-bu, La Corda D'oro, Uta no Prince-sama: Maji Love 1000%, Starry Sky, Brothers Conflict, Free!!, Kamigami no Asobi, etc. You will recognize the same basic character/hair types repeated amongst these series. For 80s and older anime, check out: anything by Tezuka Osamu, Versailles no Bara, Glass no Kamen, Ace wo Nerae, Attack No. 1!, Ashita no Joe, Kagaku Ninjatai Gatchaman, Ginga Tetsudou 999, Candy Candy, early Gundam and Macross, etc. Recent moe series have recurring types as well.